The inhabitants of Abydos are human, brought from Earth by Ra thousands of years ago, and they have continued to emulate an Egyptian culture. Abydos was the destination of the first stargate mission, the purpose of which was to detect any possible threat to Earth, and if found, to detonate a Mark 3 nuclear device and destroy the gate on the other side. Ra was killed when the nuclear device was detonated aboard his spacecraft in orbit, but the planet and its stargate were spared. During the mission, the team had encountered a population of approximately 5000, and afterward, Daniel remained behind on the planet, marrying Sha're, a native Abydonian. Daniel buried the stargate in rocks making return to the planet impossible until one year later when the return mission to Abydos reunited O'Neill and Daniel.
Abydos next came under the control of Apophis, and following his attack and the capture of Sha're and Skaara, Daniel left orders to bury the stargate once more for exactly one year. SG-1 returned to Abydos during the search for Sha're and Skaara, and kept in contact with Kasuf and the Abydonians. Sha're/Amaunet returned to the planet carrying the child of Apophis, and the Harsesis infant was born on Abydos before being taken into hiding. The Abydonians faced their greatest threat when Anubis arrived, seeking the Eye of Ra buried in a secret chamber in the catacombs of the pyramid. Using the power of the six Eyes, Anubis created a superweapon which destroyed the pyramid, and everyone was killed in the blast. However, Oma Desala helped the Abydonians to ascend, and they continue to exist on a higher plane.
In the language of Abydos:
Cross Reference: Abydos, Abydos Cartouche, Amaunet, Anubis, Anubis's Superweapon, Apophis, Ascension, Chaapa'ai, Egypt, Eye of Ra, Harsesis, Daniel Jackson, Kasuf, Oma Desala, Others, Ra, Sha're, Skaara, Tobay
Episode Reference: Children of the Gods, Secrets, Forever in a Day, Absolute Power, Full Circle