The Rand Protectorate and the Caledonian Federation are the two major powers on Tegalus, and they had been locked in a state of cold war for decades, each nation controlling enough weapons to wipe the other off the face of the planet. When SG-1 made first contact with the planet and established friendly relations with Commander Gareth of the Rand Protectorate and his chief aide, Jared Kane, a group of religious fundamentalists interpreted the activation of the Great Ring of Avidan as confirmation of their beliefs that the gods would return to reward the faithful, and their movement began to grow under the leadership of the zealot Soren. Within six weeks of SG-1's arrival, Soren had raised an army, civil unrest had spread throughout the urban centers, over a dozen municipalities had fallen to the fundamentalist rebels, and the country was on the verge of collapse. After three months, the civil unrest had become a civil war, and rebels had seized control of all Rand's major cities and several missile sites. The Caledonians, seeing Soren as a threat to their own security, launched missiles targeting Rand missile sites, however Soren launched a counterattack and used the chaos to seize Rand's command bunker during a battle in which Daniel was badly wounded. A full-scale war followed, Soren established a provisional government, naming his new nation Avidan, Commander Gareth and loyalists to the old government were assassinated, all of Rand's major cities were leveled, and only a fraction of the population survived. When SG-1 was finally able to reestablish communications with Daniel on the planet, they planned a coordinated flanking attack between SGC teams and Kane's loyalists to retake the bunker. The rebels were defeated, Soren was killed, and the nation began the long task of rebuilding.
In the year that followed the missile attacks, Rand remained in disarray, and with intelligence reports suggesting that Caledonia was preparing to invade, Rand was on the verge of collapsing as a nation. When a Prior of the Ori arrived through the stargate, he offered enlightenment and power, but a disease swept through the country and thousands became deathly ill as the nation fell victim to the Prior plague. Many began embracing Origin in exchange for their lives, and in return the Prior offered schematics for a satellite weapon that would guarantee Rand's total domination over the Caledonians. Despite disapproval from Kane and others in the Rand government, the completed weapon was successfully demonstrated, and President Nadal demanded Caledonia's surrender. Kane sought the assistance of the SGC, but all attempts to dismantle the weapon failed when Nadal ordered the destruction of the Prometheus. Only by using an electromagnetic pulse to temporarily disable satellite control, could SG-1 bring Nadal to offer a compromise in which Caledonians were permitted to seek refuge on another planet. However, immediately afterward, Nadal ordered the destruction of the Caledonian capital, and Rand's military leader, Commander Pernaux, killed Nadal in the hope of preventing another war. Commander Pernaux became the new president of the Rand Protectorate, and negotiations remained in place to permit Caledonians to leave through the stargate. However, shortly after negotiations began, the talks broke down, Caledonia launched an attack, and Rand responded in kind. The stargate is presumed buried in the rubble.
Cross Reference: Avidan, Great Ring of Avidan, Caledonian Federation, Chaska, Gareth, Jared Kane, Leda Kane, Nadal, Ori Satellite Weapon, Goran Pernaux, Soren, Tegalus
Episode Reference: Icon, Ethon