The Madronans are human, a simple race that is probably distinct from the advanced race which originally terraformed Madrona and created the Touchstone about 900 years ago. Led by High Priest Roham and his niece, Princess La Moor, the Madronans rely on the Touchstone to control their weather. When rogue NID operatives stole the device, catastrophic weather conditions nearly destroyed the planet. At first, the Madronans believed SG-1 to be responsible for the theft, but they allowed them to leave, trusting that they would recover the Touchstone and save Madrona from destruction. Once SG-1 had restored the Touchstone, the planet and its people were saved.
Episode Reference: Touchstone